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M.Besant E.Walter
Jerusalem, the city of Herod and Saladin


Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Ajoining Countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV in 12 volumes 

Chronicles of Enguerrand De Monstrelet (Sir John Froissart's Chronicles continuation) in 13 volumes 

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M.Besant E.Walter
Jerusalem, the city of Herod and Saladin
page 144

All these pilgrimages were like preparatory and tentative expeditions ; the final provocations were yet to come which should rouse the Christians to unanimous action. In the year 1077 the city had been taken, after holding out till the defenders were in danger of starvation, by Atsiz the Kharesmian, and transferred from the Fatemite Caliph of Egypt to the Abbaside Khalif. After the defeat of Atsiz at Gaza, a rebellion was attempted in Jerusalem, which resulted in the massacre of three thousand of the people. Atsiz called in Tutush, brother of Melek Shah, to his assistance. Tutush came, but instead of helping Afsis, he arrested and executed him, and proceeded to make himself master of Syria. A Turk, named Ostok, was made Governor of Jerusalem, and fresh persecutions began for the Christians. The Turks had now conquered the whole- of Asia Minor. Too few in numbers to occupy the whole country, they held the towns by garrison, the effeminate Greeks having fallen an easy prey to them. But before this event, the Emperor Michael Ducas, foreseeing the conquest of his country unless the Mohammedans were driven back, had written to Pope Gregory VIII., imploring the assistance of the Western Christians, and offering to throw down the barriers which separated the two Churches. Gregory quickly matured a complete plan of united action on the part of all the Christians. The price of the assistance of Western Europe was to be the submission of the Eastern Church. The conquest of Palestine was to be the triumph of Borne. Gerbert had entertained a similar dream ; but Gregory did more than dream. He · exhorted the Christians to unite in the Holy War, and obtained fifty thousand promises : he was himself to head the Crusade. But other schemes intervened, and Gregory died without doing anything. Victor III. did more than Gregory : he not only exhorted, but persuaded. The Tuscans, Venetians, and Genoese

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