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FRANCIS LANCELOTT, ESQ. Queens of England. Vol.1.


Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Ajoining Countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV in 12 volumes 

Chronicles of Enguerrand De Monstrelet (Sir John Froissart's Chronicles continuation) in 13 volumes 

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Queens of England. Vol.1.
page 261

and France, and Lord of Ireland, unto my husband, and thereto I, Antony, in the name and in the spirit of my beforementioned Lady Joanna, plight you my troth." Meanwhile, the Duchess, to satisfy the people of Brittany, and to stifle the fears of the Court of France, who viewed her anion with the King of England with alarm, placed her sons under the guardianship of the powerful Duke of Burgundy. The Duke went to Nantes on the first of October, gained the good-will of the Duchess, her children, her court, and her attendants, by presenting them with splendid gifts ; and after formally taking charge of the young Duke, and his brothers, Arthur and Jules, bade adieu to the Duchess on the third of November, and proceeded with her three sons to Paris. Immediately Joanna's betrothment became known, the clergy of the Duchy, who to a man supported Pope Benedict, denounced her marriage with the schismatic English King as a deadly sin. Filled with alarm, Joanna earnestly implored Benedict to grant a dispensation for her union ; and as the Court of Avignon judged that her presence and influence in England as Queen might check the spread of schism and heresy there, her request was complied with, on condition that she should not change her faith, and should acknowledge only Benedict the Ninth as Pope. In December, 1402, Henry the Fourth dispatched a fleet, having on board the Earls of Somerset and Worcester, and other nobles, to convey his betrothed to England. Whilst the fleet lay off Camaret, the mariners and men-at-arms clamoured for arrears of pay. To avoid trusting herself to the mercy of a mutinous crew, Joanna offered the Government of Nantes to Clisson for twelve thousand crowns. But the Governor of Nantes would neither yield the castle nor the city, which he had sworn to maintain for the Duke of Burgundy, as the guardian of the young Duke, John. Joanna, therefore, quieted the clamours of the seamen with promises; and with her daughters, Blanche and Margaret, and a noble train of Bretona and Navarrese, embarked at Camarct on the thirteenth of January, 1403. On the following day the fleet sailed for Southampton, but was driven by stress ot weather into Falmouth. Having landed here in safety, the Duchess and her illustrious train hastened to Winchester, where the King and his nobles received them with infinite joy, and where, on the seventh of February, Joanna of Navarro was married with great pomp to King Henry the Fourth, in St. Swithin's Church. The subsequent week the Queen made her public entry into London ; and being the consort of the King of their choice, the citizens received her with processions, pageants, and tumultuous rejoicings. The Grocers' Company went to considerable expense on this occasion. Their books record an allowance of six shillings and eight pence to Robert Sterne, their beadle, to ride into Suffolk to furnish minstrels. These minstrels, six in number, had four pounds for riding with the Company to Blackheath to meet the Queen, and two shillings for their dinner and wine. That their appearanco might correspond with the magnificence of the occasion, they were dressed in showy vestments with gold and silver chains ; ten shillings and two pence were paid to provide them with new caps and hoods, and they rode on richly harnessed horses. The other entries of expenses connected with this part of the Company's show, were to the said minstrels on the morrow, when the Queen passed through Cheapside to Westminster, thirteen shillings and fourpence ; for wine for them whilst thero eighteen pence ; and for a horse for the beadle twelve pence,—a tolerable proof that Joanna after passing the first day at the Tower, went on the second to Westminster, where she was crowned on the twenty-sixth of February. The coronation of the Queen was solemnized with unbounded magnificence by Archbishop Arundel. All kinds of entertainments followed ; and for weeks afterwards, serious business was suspended, and all classes, from the peasant

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