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FRANCIS LANCELOTT, ESQ. Queens of England. Vol.1.


Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Ajoining Countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV in 12 volumes 

Chronicles of Enguerrand De Monstrelet (Sir John Froissart's Chronicles continuation) in 13 volumes 

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Queens of England. Vol.1.
page 135

and expenses of the magnificent funeral were, by the Queen's consent, borne by tho Knights Templars, Ere the body was consigned to the tomb, the assembled nobles advanced one by one, and placing their bands upon it, swore fealty to Prince Edward. Shortly after his burial, an imposing altar tomb, with his effigy in brass, was erected to his memory. The following is a translation of the Latin inscription on this tomb : " Beneath are interred The clay-cold reir.ains Of Henry the Third, Whilom England's King, "Who uprearsd this church, And who was indeed A friend to the poor, And all such as need. God grant that his bones Rest in peace below, That his soul to the saints In heaven go." During the reign of Henry the Third, the nation grew more rapidly in wealth and prosperity than it had done in the preceding century. Literature progressed, the arts advanced, and trade and commerce were invigorated by wise and salutary enactments. The numerous English merchant ships trading with nearly every port from the north to tbe south of Europe, were increased in number and improved in build. Acts were passed tu advance the social condition of the community, and add to the security of life and property. Every village was guarded between sundown and sunrise by from four to six stout, well-armed men, between the feast of St. Michael and Ascension. J'oroughs were guarded by companies of twelve, and cities by six at each gate. Strangers attempting to enter after the watch was set were arrested and confined till the next morning. If a travelling merchant counted his money in the sight of the mayor or bailiff before leaving a town, ana was afterwards robbed, he could demand the reimbursement of his loss from the town, and he might require the mayor or bailiff to furnish him with a guard to shield him from the attacks of banditti. The clergy endeavoured to legitimatize bastard children, but the barons and earls, after solemn consultation, returned the oft-applauded answer, " We will net change the old and approved laws of England." Although the clergy failed in this instance, they had previously succeeded in procuring the abolition of trial by water and fire ordeal, and in its stead the question of fact was determined by an inquest of jurors, as in civil cases. Hence arose the establishment of trial by jury in criminal cases. The privileges of many of the chief towns were confirmed, or extended by charter. London, notwithstanding her heavy fines, advanced with considerable rapidity. Many of the nobles and prelates erected handsome commodious stone buildings in the neighbourhood of Westminster, and other suburban districts. The wealthy drapers of Candlewick, the enterprising mercers of Westcheap, and the renowned wine-merchants established on the Vintry quay, resided in tall stoncmansions, andm almost princely state, whilst even the Jews, mercilessly mulcted and persecuted as they had been, built an elegant synagogue, and many neat and convenient bouses in Old Jewry, the district especially assigned to them. In this reign, water wasfirst conveyed to London in leaden pipes. It took nearly fifty years to lay down these pipes, which extended from Tyburn to the conduit in Westcheap, and were six inches in diameter ; the operations being commenced in 1237, and not completed till 1285. About the same period the London night-watch, so long the pride and boast of the citizens, was established. The Dowager Queen was present at the coronation of her son, King Edward, but the festivities on that occasion were scarcely concluded, when she received the melancholy tidings of the death of her two surviving daughters, Margaret, Queen of the Scots, and Beatrice, Duchess of Brittany. Ever since the imprisonment she suffered in her childhood, Margaret's health had been delicate. On returning from the coronation of her brother, the King of England, she sunk into a rapid decline, of which she died at Cupar Castle, in Fife county,

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