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Roger De Hoveden The Annals vol.1., From A.D. 732 To A.D. 1180.


Sir John Froissart's Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Ajoining Countries from the latter part of the reign of Edward II to the coronation of Henry IV in 12 volumes 

Chronicles of Enguerrand De Monstrelet (Sir John Froissart's Chronicles continuation) in 13 volumes 

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Roger De Hoveden
The Annals vol.1., From A.D. 732 To A.D. 1180.
page 262

A.D. 1148. HENR5T IS MADE DUKE OF NORMANDY. 251 earned the favour of God and manifested great prowess. For, though but few in number, by arms they obtained possession of a famous city of Spain, Lisbon21 by name, and another, called Almeida, together with the parts adjacent. How true is it that God opposes the proud, but to the humble shows grace ! For the army of the king of the Franks and of the emperor was larger and better equipped than the former one, which had gained possession of Jerusalem ; and yet they were erushed by a very few, and routed and demolished like webs of spiders ; whereas these other poor people, whom I have just mentioned, no multitude could resist, but the greater the numbers that made head against them, the more helpless were they rendered. The greatest part of them had come from England. In the meantime, Geoffrey, earl of Anjou, husband of the above-named empress, the daughter of king Henry, entered Normandy with a great army and ravaged it, and took many castles and fortified cities ; and the nobles of Normandy, keeping in mind the oaths they had made to the said empress and her heirs regarding Normandy, readily changed to their side. For Eustace, the son of king Stephen, who had been the duke of Normandy, and had married Constance, sister of Louis, king of France, was now dead, and the king of France had given his sister Constance in marriage to Raymond, earl of Saint Gilles ; and from this period the wars so greatly in-! creased against king Stephen in England, that he eould give no attention to the defence of Normandy. At this time, Henry, son of the empress Matilda, being now a youth sixteen years of age, and having been brought up at the eourt of David, king of the Scots, his mother's uncle, was dubbed a knight by the same king David, at the city of Carlisle, having first made oath to him that if he should come to be king of England, he would restore to him Newcastle and the whole of Northumbria, and would allow him and his , heirs to hold for ever in peace, without challenge of their right, the whole of the land which lies between the rivers Tweed and Tyne. After this, the same Henry, by the advice and assistance of David, king of tbe Scots, crossed over into Normandy, and being received by the nobles, was by them made duke of Normandy. " Creat part of Portugal was at this time in the hands of the Moors.

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